By Dana Wilson-Kovacs
Underclothes for different bodies, states and activities illustrate not only their diversity and growing specialisation but their significance in shaping our appearance and presenting our bodies as socially appropriate and (occasionally) desirable.
Before the Victorian period, the distinctions between men and women’s undergarments were nowhere near as marked as they are today.
Items to conceal the genitalia and provide warmth and protection had been worn by both sexes for centuries.
Equally, men and women had worn bodices which supported the back and shaped the body and tight-lacing was popular since the 16th century.
In the 19th century, ideologies of hygiene, morality, concealment and class emerged in parallel with cheaper manufacturing materials and processes for mass production.
This led to the introduction of specifically female underpants.
Unlike drawers, which came to be associated with containment and cleanliness, the tight-laced corset, which grew in popularity in the 19th century, had no functional value.
An indicator of the class of its wearer, the corset was an essential item for those who wanted to distinguish themselves from women who needed to engage in manual labour.
The rise of department stores in the mid-19th century meant women’s power as consumers was increasingly recognised.
This fuelled an increasing elaboration of undergarments as manufacturers strove to experiment with various fabrics and patterns and create products for a variety of budgets and occasions.
The proximity of underclothes to the unseen naked body heightened their mystery and seductive appeal, and marketing techniques further enhanced this.
These aesthetic ideals were then transferred to the suspender belt and the brassiere in the early part of the 20th century.
It was the invention of vulcanised rubber, together with concerns about tight corseting, that led to these items’ development.
By the 1880s suspenders – at first attached to a belt worn over the corset and later onto the corset itself – were championed by the British National Health Society as a replacement for constricting garters.
But in the beginning the utilitarian function of the suspenders shadowed any erotic connotations the undergarment may have inspired.
Turn of the century advertising for one such item “The Portia Combined Stockings Suspender and Shoulder Harness” describes it as “very useful for little boys”.
At the turn of the 20th century, the corset was split into two different undergarments to improve movement in the back and waist.
But the modern suspender belt and brassiere did not enter mainstream consumption until the
Stockings made of artificial yarn, first manufactured in the US in 1912, created lookalike silk stockings. For the first time, glamorous hosiery at reasonable prices was available to
The proliferation of elastic materials and the introduction of nylon in the 1940s – a new artificial fibre which was superior to widely used rayon in weight, versatility and strength – contributed to the post war boom in these garments.
By the 1950s, the film industry had helped fix the erotic ensemble of suspender-belt and stockings, and this iconography was equally reflected in sexually explicit material, much in the same way in which early Victorian postcards displayed tight-laced models in various states of undress.
But such glamorous lingerie was soon to be surpassed by functional, minimalist wear, and stockings by tights, the latter introduced – like the 19th century drawers – as an innovative item for children’s wear before their adoption by adult consumers.
The stockings and suspender-belt combo was increasingly associated with sexual licence and cheap thrills. Stockings fell from 72 percent in 1964 to a mere five percent in 1971.
Celebrity endorsements helped introduce stockings and suspenders to younger women and diminish any unsavoury connotations.
And retro trends and consumers’ desire to feel feminine and attractive also contributed to this revival.
Dana Wilson-Kovacs is a lecturer in sociology at the University of Exeter, SW England, UK.